Roháč obecný

Roháč obecný

Roháč obecný (Lucanus cervus Linné, 1758) je nejznámější představitel brouků z čeledi roháčovitých a největší brouk Evropy. Žije v dutinách starých stromů a v mrtvých pařezech v lesích a hájích. S odstraňováním starých stromů a pařezů mizí i přirozené prostředí a zdroj obživy tohoto brouka. Snižuje se tak populace roháče obecného, ale i ostatních druhů brouků žijících ve stejném prostředí a roháč obecný se tak dostává na světový seznam ohrožených druhů.

V České republice byl rozšířen v listnatých lesích po celém území, dnes je však jeho výskyt lokalizován do několika oblastí. Nejhoněji se pak vyskytuje na jižní Moravě. Larvy, které mají tvar podobný písmeni „C“, jsou slepé a živí se rozkládajícím se dřevem pařezů, starých stromů a keřů, hnijících kůlů plotů v kompostových hromadách a listovkách. Larvy mají měkké, krémově zbarvené průsvitné tělo se šesti oranžově zabarvenými nohami a oranžovou hlavou, na které se vyjímají ostrá, hnědě zbarvená kusadla. Na svých nohách mají larvy kartáčky, které používají pro komunikaci (tzv. stridulaci) s ostatními larvami stejného druhu. Larva prochází několika fázemi vývoje a po 4 až 6 letech se zakukluje. Entomolog Charlie Morgan koncem 70. let objevil, že kukla roháče žije asi tři měsíce v půdě a v létě se vylíhne dospělý brouk, který se odlétá pářit s jedincem opačného pohlaví.
Dospělí jedinci se objevují od konce května do začátku srpna a jsou nejvíce aktivní ve večerních hodinách. Samičky roháče kladou svá vajíčka do rozkládajícího se dřeva. Dospělí brouci žijí pouze několik měsíců a živí se nektarem a šťávou stromů a rostlin. Létají za soumraku a jejich pomalý let je doprovázen charakteristickým hluboce bzučivým zvukem. Samci létají mnohem častěji než samice.

U roháče obecného se projevuje sexuální dimorfismus, který spočívá v tom, že samci mají větší kusadla a jsou i celkově větší než samice. Ačkoliv samčí kusadla vypadají hrozivěji, jsou příliš slabá na to, aby ublížila. Naopak menší kusadla samice mohou způsobit bolestivé kousnutí. Samčí kusadla se podobají paroží jelena a brouci je používají stejně jako jeleni k zápasu mezi sebou a tato podoba dala tomuto brouku vědecké i obecné jméno v mnoha jazycích.

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